People coming to the UK from France and the Netherlands will be forced to quarantine for 14 days from Saturday.
Transport Secretary Grant Shapps said the measure – which also applies to people travelling from Monaco, Malta, Turks and Caicos, and Aruba – would kick in from 04:00 BST.
He added that this was necessary to keep coronavirus infections down.
France warned the UK decision would lead to “reciprocal measures” across the Channel.
The UK government’s decision follows a surge in cases in the countries affected in recent days.
Airlines UK described it as “another devastating blow to the travel industry already reeling from the worst crisis in its history”.
With up to half a million UK tourists thought to be in France at present, the deadline is expected to induce a rush to ports and airports, with thousands of tourists desperate to avoid quarantine.